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US States where midazolam implicated in flawed executions

June 29, 2015 GMT

With the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling that midazolam can be used in lethal injections, here’s a look at the states where the sedative has been implicated in several flawed executions or where it is or has been listed in prison system protocols:



Lists midazolam as part of a two-drug execution protocol, with hydromorphone.

Joseph Rudolph Wood gasped and snorted for more than 90 minutes during his July 23 execution with midazolam. He was pronounced dead nearly two hours after his execution started.




Has conducted 11 executions that included the use of midazolam.

Lawyers for the Oklahoma inmates in the case decided Monday said inmate William Happ, on Oct. 15, 2013, appeared to remain conscious longer than inmates executed under other protocols.

The state was poised to execute Jerry Correll on Feb. 26 but postponed it after stays were granted in the Oklahoma case. The prisons system has said executions would resume as normal if the high court allowed the continued use of midazolam and that Correll could be the first up.



Eliminated midazolam from its execution protocol following the prolonged execution of an inmate last year and now intends to use two other drugs, neither of which it has in its possession.

On Jan. 16, 2014, Dennis McGuire gasped during the 26 minutes it took him to die during an execution that included midazolam.



Has conducted two executions with midazolam as part of a three-drug protocol

On April 29, 2014, Clayton Lockett writhed and groaned during an execution that included midazolam. The prisons director halted the execution but Lockett died 43 minutes after his execution started; investigators said an intravenous line was placed poorly.

Oklahoma’s attorney general will notify the state’s Court of Criminal Appeals that the three inmates who challenged the use of midazolam have exhausted their appeals. The prison system said Monday it has enough drugs to put them to death.